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Variation in Chromosome Constitution of the Xiaoyan Series Partial Amphiploids and Its Relationship to Stripe Rust and Stem Rust Resistance

Zheng, Qi, Luo, Qiaoling, Niu, Zhixia, Li, Hongwei, Li, Bin, Xu, Steven S., Li, Zhensheng
Journal of genetics and genomics 2015 v.42 no.11 pp. 657-660
Thinopyrum elongatum, Thinopyrum ponticum, botany, chromosomes, gene pool, genes, genetic engineering, genetic improvement, genetic resistance, stem rust, stripe rust, wheat
In the tertiary gene pool of wheat, tall wheatgrass Thinopyrum ponticum (2n = 10x = 70) is an excellent source of resistance genes against numerous wheat diseases. The creation of wheat-Th. ponticum partial amphiploids is an intermediate step for transferring the useful genes from Th. ponticum to wheat through chromosome engineering. In 1980s, a number of Xiaoyan series wheat-Th. ponticum partial amphiploids were produced at Northwest Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences (Yangling, China) and they are subsequently maintained in different institutions. The chromosome constitutions in five partial amphiploids (Xiaoyan 68, Xiaoyan 693, Xiaoyan 784, Xiaoyan 7430, and Xiaoyan 7631) maintained at the Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences (Beijing, China) were recently analyzed. The objective of this study was to determine if the Xiaoyan series partial amphiploids with the same origin still have the similar chromosome constitution after maintenance in different places for several years. In this study, we analyzed the chromosome compositions of the five partial amphiploids (designated as XN-Xiaoyan 68, XN-Xiaoyan 693, XN-Xiaoyan 783, and XN-Xiaoyan 784, XN-Xiaoyan 7631) maintained at Northwest A&F University (Yangling, Shaanxi, China) using the sequential multi c-GISH and mc-FISH technique, and evaluated their resistance to stripe rust and stem rust. Results showed that XN-Xiaoyan 693 and XN-Xiaoyan 7631 had similar chromosome constitution to Xiaoyan 693 and Xiaoyan 7631, respectively. However, XN-Xiaoyan 68 and XN-Xiaoyan 784 are cytogenetically different from Xiaoyan 68 and Xiaoyan 784, respectively. Stem rust and stripe evaluation showed that all the five XN-Xiaoyan amphiploids were highly resistant to stripe rust and three of the amphiploids (XN-Xiaoyan 68, XN-Xiaoyan 783, and XN-Xiaoyan 784) had excellent resistance to stem rust, indicating that these amphiploids were a valuable source of stem rust and strip resistance for wheat improvement.