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Reasons behind the epidemiological situation of brucellosis in the Republic of Kazakhstan

Syrym, Nazym S., Yespembetov, Bolat A., Sarmykova, Makhpal K., Konbayeva, Gulshat M., Koshemetov, Zhumagali K., Akmatova, Elmira K., Bazarbaev, Marat, Siyabekov, Sarsenbek T.
Acta tropica 2019 v.191 pp. 98-107
blood, brucellosis, cattle, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, geography, goats, risk factors, screening, seroprevalence, sheep, tissues, Kazakhstan
Brucellosis is endemic in the Republic of Kazakhstan, particularly in agro-pastoral areas. The purpose of this research is to study the epidemiological situation of brucellosis in livestock recorded in the Republic of Kazakhstan, and to identify the reasons why anti-brucellosis measures were not effective. The research was performed on statistical data provided by the Republican Veterinary Laboratory (RVL), the Ministry of Agriculture of the Republic of Kazakhstan. The analysis touched upon the prevalence of Brucellosis in cattle and small ruminants (sheep and goats) in 13 regions of the Republic of Kazakhstan in 2012–2016. Aside from that, Research Institute for Biological Safety Problems conducted screening assays that involved 11,889 samples of blood and tissues from said animals. The risks of developing Brucellosis were assessed for each particular region. The comparison of studies conducted in 2012–2016 reveals an increase in the prevalence of Brucellosis in cattle in the following regions: West Kazakhstan, Karaganda Region and Pavlodar Region. For small ruminants, growing prevalence was observed in the Kostanay Region, Jambyl Region and Almaty Region. Between 2014 and 2016, the incidence rate had a growing trend, with a high in 2014 and 2015. The lowest prevalence rate during the following years (2012–2016) was in the Mangystau Region. The Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISE) test applied in the research among other tests provided the best results. The main risk factors involve epidemiology and sanitary measures, which are undertaken in the Republic of Kazakhstan, geography of the region with focuses of infection, and randomness of spread.