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Inhibition of cytochrome P450 3A protein degradation and subsequent increase in enzymatic activity through p38 MAPK activation by acetaminophen and salicylate derivatives

Ohtsuki, Yuya, Sanoh, Seigo, Santoh, Masataka, Ejiri, Yoko, Ohta, Shigeru, Kotake, Yaichiro
Biochemical and biophysical research communications 2019 v.509 no.1 pp. 287-293
acetaminophen, cytochrome P-450, enzyme activity, glycoproteins, mitogen-activated protein kinase, moieties, pharmacokinetics, positional isomers, proteasome endopeptidase complex, protein degradation, protein synthesis, transcription (genetics), ubiquitin, ubiquitin-protein ligase
Cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4 plays an important role in drug metabolism. Although transcriptional regulation of CYP3A expression by chemicals has been comprehensively studied, its post-translational regulation is not fully understood. We previously reported that acetaminophen (APAP) caused accumulation of functional CYP3A protein via inhibition of CYP3A protein degradation through reduction of glycoprotein 78 (gp78), an E3 ligase of the ubiquitin proteasome system. Furthermore, N-acetyl-m-aminophenol, a regioisomer of APAP causes CYP3A protein accumulation, whereas p-acetamidobezoic acid, in which a hydroxy group of APAP was substituted for a carboxy group, did not lead to the same effects. However, the mechanism underlying the reduction of gp78 protein expression by APAP has not yet been elucidated. In this study, we selected 32 compounds including a phenolic hydroxyl group such as APAP and explored the compounds that increased CYP3A enzyme activity to analyze their common mechanism. Four compounds, including salicylate, increased CYP3A enzyme activity and led to the accumulation of functional CYP3A protein similarly to APAP. APAP and salicylate activate p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK). gp78 is known to be phosphorylated by p38 MAPK; so, we investigated the relationship between p38 MAPK and CYP3A. APAP activated p38 MAPK, decreased gp78 protein expression, and subsequently induced CYP3A protein expression in a time-dependent manner. When SB203580, a p38 MAPK inhibitor, was co-administered with APAP, the inhibitory effects of APAP on CYP3A protein degradation were suppressed. In this study, we demonstrated the involvement of the p38 MAPK-gp78 pathway in suppressing CYP3A protein degradation by APAP. Salicylate derivatives may also suppress the CYP3A protein degradation.