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Symposium review: Features of Staphylococcus aureus mastitis pathogenesis that guide vaccine development strategies

Côté-Gravel, Julie, Malouin, François
Journal of dairy science 2019 v.102 no.5 pp. 4727-4740
Staphylococcus aureus, animal health, antibiotics, bovine mastitis, cost effectiveness, dairy farming, dairy industry, immune response, milk production, pathogenesis, pathogens, vaccine development, vaccines
Bovine mastitis affects animal health and welfare and milk production and quality, and it challenges the economic success of dairy farms. Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most commonly found pathogens in clinical mastitis but it also causes subclinical, persistent, and difficult-to-treat intramammary infections. Because of the failure of conventional antibiotic treatments and increasing pressure and concern from experts and consumers over the use of antibiotics in the dairy industry, many attempts have been made over the years to develop a vaccine for the prevention and control of Staph. aureus intramammary infections. Still, no commercially available vaccine formulation demonstrates sufficient protection and cost-effective potential. Multiple factors account for the lack of protection, including inadequate vaccine targets, high diversity among mastitis-provoking strains, cow-to-cow variation in immune response, and a failure to elicit an immune response that is appropriate for protection against a highly complex pathogen. The purpose of this review is to summarize key concepts related to the pathogenesis of Staph. aureus, and its interaction with the host, as well as to describe recent vaccine development strategies for prevention and control of Staph. aureus mastitis.