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Application of UVOX Redox® for swimming pool water treatment: Microbial inactivation, disinfection byproduct formation and micropollutant removal
- Ekowati, Yuli, Ferrero, Giuliana, Farré, Maria José, Kennedy, Maria D., Buttiglieri, Gianluigi
- Chemosphere 2019 v.220 pp. 176-184
- Bacillus subtilis, Cryptosporidium, Giardia, acetaminophen, bromination, byproducts, caffeine, chlorination, chlorine, dichloroacetic acid, disinfection, estradiol, estrone, ibuprofen, oocysts, ozonation, ozone, pathogens, pollutants, pollution control, spores, swimming pools, ultraviolet radiation, water treatment
- Alternative disinfection technologies may overcome some of the limitations of conventional treatment applied in swimming pools: chlorine-resistant pathogens (e.g. Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts) and the formation of chlorinated disinfection byproducts. In this paper, results of full scale validation of an alternative disinfection technology UVOX Redox® (hereinafter referred to as UVOX) that combines ozonation and UV irradiation are presented. The performance was assessed in terms of microbial inactivation, disinfection byproduct formation and micropollutant removal. UVOX was able to achieve 1.4–2.7 log inactivation of Bacillus subtilis spores at water flows between 20 and 76 m³/h. Lower formation of trichloromethane and dichloroacetic acid was observed with UVOX followed by chlorination when compared to chlorination alone. However, due to the use of ozone and the presence of bromide in the pool water, the formation of trihalomethanes and haloacetic acids shifted to more brominated byproducts. Chlorine alone was able to remove the target micropollutants: acetaminophen, atenolol, caffeine, carbamazepine, estrone, estradiol, and venlafaxine (>97% removal) after 24 h, with the exception of ibuprofen (60% removal). The application of UVOX in chlorinated water enhanced the removal of ibuprofen. The application of UVOX could lower the usage of chlorine to the level that provides an adequate residual disinfection effect.