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Water temperature and acid pH influence the cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of aluminum in the freshwater teleost Astyanax altiparanae (Teleostei: Characidae)

Pinheiro, João Paulo Silva, Assis, Cecília Bertacini de, Muñoz-Peñuela, Marcela, Barbosa Júnior, Fernando, Correia, Tiago Gabriel, Moreira, Renata Guimarães
Chemosphere 2019 v.220 pp. 266-274
Astyanax altiparanae, DNA fragmentation, aluminum, ambient temperature, bioaccumulation, comet assay, cytotoxicity, erythrocytes, exposure duration, fish, freshwater, genotoxicity, global warming, males, micronucleus tests, mutagens, pH, semen, spermatozoa, testes, water temperature
The toxicity of metals, including aluminum (Al), can be potentiated by temperature and acid pH, a concern in view of the current global warming scenario. The aim of this study was to evaluate the bioconcentration of Al in the testes and semen of Astyanax altiparanae and the potential of this metal, at different environmental temperatures and acid pH, to cause cytotoxicity and genotocixity in erythrocytes and spermatozoa. A. altiparanae males were divided into nine experimental groups: at each of three different water temperatures (20, 25 and 30 °C), the fish were exposed to a neutral pH, an acid pH and acidic water containing Al (0.5 mg.L−1). The fish were subjected to subacute, semi-static exposure and sampled at 24 and 96 h. After each exposure period the comet assay (blood and semen) and micronucleus test (blood) were performed. Bioconcentration of Al was evaluated in the testes and semen. Exposure time and temperature influenced the Al bioconcentration pattern in the testes. Al concentration in the semen was higher in fish exposed at 20 and 25 °C (24 h). The DNA fragmentation score for the semen and blood was higher in fish exposed to Al at 20 (24 h) and 30 °C (96 h). The frequency of nuclear abnormalities in erythrocytes was higher in the group exposed to Al at 30 °C (96 h). It was concluded that Al bioconcentrates in the testes and semen of A. altiparanae at different temperatures and is potentially cytotoxic and genotoxic to erythrocytes and spermatozoa in this species.