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Purification and characterization of a cystatin like thiol protease inhibitor from Brassica nigra

Feroz, Anna, Khaki, Peerzada Shariq Shaheen, Siddiqui, Azad Alam, Amin, Fakhra, Khan, Mohd Sajid, Bano, Bilqees
International journal of biological macromolecules 2019 v.125 pp. 1128-1139
Brassica nigra, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, ammonium sulfate, bromelains, calorimetry, circular dichroism spectroscopy, cystatins, diffusivity, ficain, fluorescence, food technology, fractionation, gel chromatography, genetic engineering, kinetics, medicine, molecular weight, papain, polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, protein metabolism, proteins, seeds, spectral analysis, stoichiometry, thermodynamics, titration
Phytocystatins or plant cystatins belong to a group of thiol protease inhibitors present ubiquitously in living system. They play a crucial role in cellular protein turnover thereby showing involvement in a wide array of physiological processes in plants. With wide importance and tremendous potential applications in the fields of genetic engineering, medicine, agriculture, and food technology, it is imperative to identify and isolate such protease inhibitors from different cheap and easily available plant sources. Present study focuses on the isolation, purification and characterization of a cystatin like thiol protease inhibitor from the seeds of Brassica nigra (rai mustard) following a simple two-step method using ammonium sulphate fractionation (40–60%) and gel filtration chromatography on Sephacryl S-100HR column with 51.85% yield and 151.50 fold purification. Rai seed cystatin (RSC) gave a molecular mass of ~19.50 kDa as determined by SDS PAGE and gel filtration behaviour. Stokes radius and diffusion coefficient of RSC were 19.80 Å and 11.21 × 10−7 cm2 s−1 respectively. Kinetic analysis revealed a reversible and non-competitive mode of inhibition with RSC showing highest inhibition towards papain (Ki = 1.62 × 10−7 M) followed by ficin and bromelain. Purified RSC possessed an α helical content of 35.29% as observed by far-UV CD spectroscopy. UV, fluorescence, CD and FTIR spectral studies revealed a significant conformational alteration in one or both the proteins upon RSC-papain complex formation. Isothermal Titration Calorimetry (ITC) analysis further revealed the values for different thermodynamic parameters involved in complex formation, indicating the process to be enthalpically as well as entropically driven with forces involved in binding the proteins to be electrostatic in nature. Additionally binding stoichiometry (N) of 0.95 ± 0.08 sites indicates that each molecule of RSC is surrounded by nearly one papain molecule.