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Cytotoxicity comparison between fine particles emitted from the combustion of municipal solid waste and biomass

Shang, Yu, Wu, Meiying, Zhou, Jizhi, Zhang, Xing, Zhong, Yufang, An, Jing, Qian, Guangren
Journal of hazardous materials 2019 v.367 pp. 316-324
DNA damage, atomic absorption spectrometry, biomass, combustion, copper, cytotoxicity, endotoxins, heavy metals, human health, interleukin-6, lead, messenger RNA, municipal solid waste, particulates, polychlorinated dibenzodioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans, viability, waste incineration, water solubility, zinc
Fine particles (PM2.5) emitted from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) contain high amounts of toxic compounds and pose a serious threat to environment and human health. In this study, entire particles as well as extracted water-soluble and -insoluble fractions of PM2.5 collected from MSWI and biomass incineration (BMI) were subjected to physiochemical characterization and cytotoxic tests in A549 and BEAS-2B cells. MSWI PM2.5 had higher contents of heavy metals (including Pb, Zn, and Cu) and dioxins (PCDD/Fs) than did BMI PM2.5. The metals were enriched in the water-insoluble fraction, as measured by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry. BMI PM2.5 had a higher content of endotoxin, which was also enriched in the water-insoluble fraction. MSWI PM2.5 caused more serious cell injuries, as indicated by the lower viability, higher ROS generation, and DNA damage, whereas BMI PM2.5 presented higher pro-inflammatory potential, as indicated by increased mRNA levels of interleukin 6. Normal human BEAS-2B cells were more sensitive than A549 cells in all these tests. Toxic effects caused by MSWI and BMI PM2.5 were mostly attributable to their water-insoluble fractions. Our results indicate different chemical and biological compositions in MSWI and BMI PM2.5 probably dominate in different toxic endpoints in vitro.