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The reduction of toxic metals of various rice types by different preparation and cooking processes – Human health risk assessment in Tehran households, Iran
- Sharafi, Kiomars, Yunesian, Masoud, Nodehi, Ramin Nabizadeh, Hossein Mahvi, Amir, Pirsaheb, Meghdad, Nazmara, Shahrokh
- Food chemistry 2019 v.280 pp. 294-302
- arsenic, boiling, cadmium, cooking, health effects assessments, households, human health, lead, rice, soaking, toxicity, washing, Iran
- In this study, the effect of washing, soaking (1, 5 and 12 h), and cooking rice methods including Rinsed (boiling in excess water) and Kateh (conventional) cooking on the reduction of the arsenic (As), lead (Pb), and cadmium (Cd) were evaluated. The results showed that the rinsed cooking has higher efficiency for removal of toxic metals (As = 42.3%, Pb = 42.9% and = 27.6%) than Kateh method (As = 26.9%, Pb = 26.9% and = 20.9%). Additionally, by increasing of rice soaking time from 1 to 12 h, the toxic metals removal was increased up to 37.1%, 42.6% and 16.6% for As, Pb and Cd, respectively. Although the toxic metals reduction was such that the non-carcinogenic risk was regarded as acceptable level after all processes, for arsenic, these reductions did not lower the carcinogenic risk to an acceptable level. Finally, it is suggested that Tehran households, after washing and soaking to 5 h, then cook it by rinse method.