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Monolayer rubrene functionalized graphene-based eletrochemiluminescence biosensor for serum cystatin C detection with immunorecognition-induced 3D DNA machine

Zhao, Min, Bai, Lijuan, Cheng, Wei, Duan, Xiaolei, Wu, Haiping, Ding, Shijia
Biosensors & bioelectronics 2019 v.127 pp. 126-134
DNA, biosensors, blood serum, detection limit, graphene, humans, luminescence, nanomaterials
Only surficial molecules of eletrochemiluminescent (ECL) nanomaterials are the most reactive species in the typical ECL reaction. Herein, monolayer rubrene was assembled on the surface of graphene sheet to obtain monolayer rubrene functionalized graphene composite (G/mRub) with strong ECL emission by maximizing the surficial rubrene molecules. Based on G/mRub as the strong ECL emitter, an ultrasensitive “on-off” biosensor was developed to detect cystatin C (Cys C) in human serum with the help of a novel immunorecognition-induced enzyme-free 3D DNA machine. Benefiting from the strong ECL emission of G/mRub and the efficient signal amplification of 3D DNA machine, the established biosensor achieved high sensitivity for Cys C detection with linear range from 1.0 fg mL−1 to 10 ng mL−1 and limit of detection down to 0.38 fg mL−1. In addition, this enzyme-free biosensing method was adopted to successfully detect the concentration of Cys C in human serum. Therefore, the G/mRub based ECL biosensor might provide a potential tool for protein detection in clinical diagnosis and a new avenue to prepare high-performance luminescent nanomaterials.