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Effects of compost characteristics on nutrient retention and simultaneous pollutant immobilization and degradation during co-composting process
- Fan, Hongyong, Liao, Jie, Abass, Olusegun K., Liu, Lin, Huang, Xu, Wei, Lili, Li, Jie, Xie, Wei, Liu, Chaoxiang
- Bioresource technology 2019 v.275 pp. 61-69
- composted manure, composting, leachates, liquids, metals, models, nutrient retention, organic matter, pollutants
- This study was conducted to examine the effects of controlled addition of liquid (LM) to solid (SM) manure compost using a volume-model technique on the co-composting of SM and LM, and further to investigate the major effects of bulking material sizes and LM types on the co-composting process and final compost characteristics. Results indicated that this volume-model technique played a critical role in reducing leachate generation and improving the overall efficiency of the co-composting process. Specifically, the developed model enhanced the evaporation rates of windrows during the co-composting process. For improved final compost properties, small bulking materials and swine-effluent-based LM were found to be more efficient for organic matter degradation, LM consumption, hazardous metals immobilization, and essential nutrients retention than large bulking materials and biogas-based LM. Thus, process parameter optimizations represent major research options for successful co-composting applications for the future.