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Comparative proteomic analysis of durum wheat shoots from modern and ancient cultivars

Rocco, Mariapina, Tartaglia, Maria, Izzo, Francesco Paolo, Varricchio, Ettore, Arena, Simona, Scaloni, Andrea, Marra, Mauro
Plant physiology and biochemistry 2019 v.135 pp. 253-262
agronomic traits, cultivars, durum wheat, energy, enzymes, genomics, germination, gliadin, glutenins, glycolysis, heirloom varieties, nutrient content, pasta, plant cultural practices, plant physiology, proteomics, semolina, sensory properties, shoots, stress response, tricarboxylic acid cycle, Italy, Mediterranean region
Durum wheat is widespread cultivated in the Mediterranean basin, where it is used to produce high-quality semolina for pasta. Although over the years local and ancient wheat cultivars have been replaced by new ones, better suited to intensive cultivation, the increasing demand of consumers for nutritional and sensory qualities, as well as their attention to sustainable agronomic practices, renewed the interest toward traditional varieties. In order to fully exploit their agronomical and nutritional potential, a systematic analysis of molecular traits would be desirable. Nowadays, this examination is greatly facilitated by the current availability of high-throughput genomic and proteomic methods, which are integrated with classical measurements on plant physiology. To this purpose, we performed a comparative study on germination performances, hormone level variations, and differential protein representations of three-days germinated shoots of two traditional wheat cultivars from Southern Italy, namely Senatore Cappelli and Saragolla, and the commercial elite variety Svevo. Two-dimensional electrophoresis- and nanoLC-ESI-LIT-MS/MS-based proteomic analysis revealed 45 differentially represented spots, which were associated with 32 non-redundant protein species grouping into storage, stress/defense and metabolism/energy production functional categories. Major differences in the traditional varieties concerned over-representation of glutenins, gamma-gliadin and some enzymes of glycolysis and TCA cycle, as well as a down-representation of proteins involved in the response to stress conditions. These features were here discussed in relation to the hormone profile and the known agronomic features of traditional varieties, as compared to the commercial one.