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Changes in urinary volatiles and proteins in male goats: A possible clue for females during mate selection

Sankarganesh, Devaraj, Ramachandran, Rajamanickam, Vinothkumar, Arumugam, Rengarajan, Rengasamy Lakshminarayanan, Saravanakumar, Veluchamy Ramesh, Archunan, Govindaraju, Achiraman, Shanmugam
Biocatalysis and agricultural biotechnology 2019 v.17 pp. 361-365
castration, creatinine, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, males, mating behavior, nannygoats, polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, protein composition, proteins, puberty, semiochemicals, sexual selection, spectrometers, urine, volatile compounds
Urine is believed to be a potent source of chemo-communication among mammals. The semiochemicals in the urine are useful to advertise the physiological conditions among members of the same species. The female goats select the intact male goats for mating, but what drives this mate selection is not known. We assume that biochemicals in the urine of intact males are pivotal during sexual selection. Therefore, we investigated the pooled urine of intact, prepubertal and castrated goats (n = 6/group) for volatile analysis using Gas Chromatograph- Mass Spectrometer (GC-MS) and protein profiling adopting Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate- Polyacrlamide Gel Electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Among the total of 23 volatile compounds, each group revealed unique compounds in their urine; four compounds in intact goats, eight compounds in castrated goats, and two compounds in prepubertal goats. The urine of intact goats contain as many as proteins compared to prepubertal and castrated goats. This is positively supported by the reduced level of creatinine in the intact goats, and elevated level in the prepubertal and castrated goats. The present study offer a template for understanding the physiology of male goats and its influence on urinary biochemicals that may together serve for mate selection.