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Application of Analytic Hierarchy Process in Water Resources Planning: A GIS Based Approach in the Identification of Suitable Site for Water Storage

Ahmad, Ishtiyaq, Verma, Mukesh Kumar
Water resources management 2018 v.32 no.15 pp. 5093-5114
basins, drought, equations, geographic information systems, land use, models, multi-criteria decision making, planning, remote sensing, rivers, runoff, soil, soil conservation, streams, water storage, watersheds, India
One of the important objectives of water resources planning is to tap the maximum possible water available in the river basin that can be utilized particularly during the period of drought. This can be materialized by creating water storage structures. For this purpose initially, the first task could be the identification of suitable site for creating water storage sites. With the advent of Remote Sensing (RS) and Geographic Information System (GIS) techniques, it becomes easier for water resources planner to identify the suitable location of water storage structure within the basin. Present study demonstrates the identification of suitable location in the upper basin of Sheonath river in Chhattisgarh State, India. Based on the various physical characteristics of the basin, GIS based multi-criteria evaluation technique is being applied to determine the most suitable water storage sites. The suitable sites are assessed by considering the spatially varying parameters. These parameters include potential runoff, hydrologic soil group, land use, lineament, slope, stream order and settlement and basin area. Potential runoff is calculated from Soil Conservation Service Curve Number (SCS-CN) equation. Since, there is more than one parameter; it is significant to determine the importance of one layer over another layer. Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) is one of the multi-criteria decision making method resulting in the percentage relative importance. The AHP model consists of three levels objective i.e. suitable site for water storage, the parameter used and the alternatives. In the overlay process of GIS the relative importance determined by AHP is applied to produce suitable locations. Suitability is divided into three categories “suitability level 1”, “suitability level 2” and “suitability level 3” representing storage tank, stop dam and check dam respectively. This mapping helps in selecting potential site for water storage structures in the basin.