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Role of Pediococcus in winemaking

Wade, M.E., Strickland, M.T., Osborne, J.P., Edwards, C.G.
Australian journal of grape and wine research 2019 v.25 no.1 pp. 7-24
Pediococcus damnosus, Pediococcus inopinatus, Pediococcus parvulus, Pediococcus pentosaceus, bacteria, biogenic amines, diacetyl, ethanol, exopolysaccharides, fastidious bacteria, flavor, malolactic fermentation, off odors, pH, spoilage, wine quality, winemaking, wines
The genus Pediococcus comprises a group of nutritionally fastidious bacteria, several of which have been isolated from wines worldwide, for example P. damnosus, P. inopinatus, P. parvulus and P. pentosaceus. The growth of these bacteria is generally considered undesirable because of their ability to produce off‐odours and flavours. As examples, Pediococcus spp. have been associated with the synthesis of excessive diacetyl, exopolysaccharides, and/or biogenic amines, all of which have a detrimental impact on wine quality. Historically, oenological factors, such as low pH, high ethanol and nutrient depletion following malolactic fermentation, have often been considered sufficient to limit growth. Recent research, however, has supported the contention that Pediococcus spp. can grow in wines considered to be microbiologically stable. Furthermore, the presence of Pediococcus spp. in wines does not always lead to spoilage. New findings have suggested potential uses for Pediococcus spp. in winemaking, but have also highlighted a lack of understanding of those factors that influence growth and spoilage potential. The present work reviews the current knowledge of pediococci isolated during vinification as well as focuses on areas for future research.