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Echocardiographic parameters in eight adult tigers (panthera tigris) during two phases of an anesthetic protocol

Rodriguez, Kiira T., Gompf, Rebecca E., Smith, Christopher K., Price, Joshua M., Cushing, Andrew C.
Journal of zoo and wildlife medicine 2018 v.49 no.4 pp. 875-880
Panthera tigris, adults, anesthesia, echocardiography, gender, isoflurane, ketamine, medetomidine, monitoring, protocols, sedation
Eight adult tigers (Panthera tigris) underwent a complete echocardiographic examination following sedation with medetomidine, midazolam, and induction of general anesthesia using ketamine and isoflurane (phase 1). Atipamezole was used to antagonize medetomidine (phase 2) and a second echocardiographic examination was performed. Physiologic tricuspid and pulmonic regurgitations were common findings in the sample population and one tiger was excluded from final analyses due to the finding of a ventricular septal defect. Measurements and mean arterial pressure were assessed for statistically significant differences between the two examination phases as well as gender and weight. There was a statistically significant difference between interventricular septum thickness at end systole, ejection fraction, and mean arterial pressure between anesthetic phases while fractional shortening and left ventricular internal dimension at end-systole approached, but did not reach, statistical significance between phases. Weight was found to be a statistically significant predictor of stroke volume and left ventricular internal dimension at end-diastole. The echocardiographic measurements obtained during this study can be used as guidelines for future examinations in adult tigers. The effects of medetomidine on these measurements and systolic function should be taken into account when performing echocardiograms and monitoring anesthetic events.