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Transcriptome analysis of grapevine under salinity and identification of key genes responsible for salt tolerance

Das, Priyanka, Majumder, Arun Lahiri
Functional & integrative genomics 2019 v.19 no.1 pp. 61-73
Vitis vinifera, amino acid metabolism, biosynthesis, carbohydrate metabolism, crop yield, crops, cultivars, energy metabolism, gene expression regulation, gene ontology, gene overexpression, genes, genetic engineering, genetically modified organisms, grapes, leaves, lipid metabolism, messenger RNA, models, quantitative polymerase chain reaction, reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, rootstocks, salinity, salt concentration, salt stress, salt tolerance, secondary metabolites, seedless varieties, sequence analysis, signal transduction, transcriptome, transcriptomics
The negative effects of soil salinity towards grape yield depend upon salt concentration, cultivar type, developmental stage, and rootstock. Thompson Seedless variety of grape plant is considered moderately sensitive to salinity when grown upon its own root stock. In recent epoch, identification of key genes responsive to salinity offers hope to generate salinity-tolerant crop plants by their overexpression through genetic manipulation. In the present report, salt responsive transcriptome analysis of Thompson Seedless grape variety was done to identify vital genes involved in salinity tolerance which could be used further to generate salt liberal grape plant or other crop plants. Transcriptome libraries for control and 150-mM-NaCl-treated grape leaves were sequenced on Illumina platform where 714 genes were found to be differentially expressed. Gene ontology analysis indicated that under salinity conditions, the genes involved in metabolic process were highly enriched. Keto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes analysis revealed that, among the top 22 enriched pathways for the salt stress upregulated genes, the carbohydrate metabolism, signal transduction, energy metabolism, amino acid metabolism, biosynthesis of secondary metabolite, and lipid metabolism pathways possessed the largest number of transcripts. Key salinity-induced genes were selected and validated through qRT-PCR analysis which was comparable to RNA-seq results. Real-time PCR analysis also revealed that after 24 days of salinity, the expression of most of the selected key genes was highest. These salinity-induced genes will be characterized further in a model plant and also in Vitis vinifera through transgenic approach to disclose their role towards salt tolerance.