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Identification of Avian Paramyxovirus Serotype-1 in Wild Birds in the USA

Kerri Pedersen, David R. Marks, Claudio L. Afonso, Scott R. Stopak, Dawn Williams-Coplin, Kiril M. Dimitrov, Patti J. Miller, Thomas J. DeLiberto
Journal of wildlife diseases 2016 v.52 no.3 pp. 657-662
Orthorubulavirus, wild birds, Charadriiformes, Anseriformes, Columba livia, seroprevalence, Pelecanus, doves, viruses, genotype, viral shedding, virulence, Accipitriformes, geographical distribution, blood serum, morbidity, pathogen identification, Phalacrocorax, mortality, pigeons, United States
In the US, sampling for avian paramyxovirus serotype-1 (APMV-1) is generally conducted when morbidity or mortality events occur involving certain families of wild birds known to be affected by the virus, such as cormorants (Family Phalacrocoracidae), pigeons, doves (Family Columbidae), or pelicans (Family Pelecanidae). To quantify the prevalence of APMV-1 in apparently healthy wild birds and to determine its geographic distribution, we collected swab and serum samples from .3,500 wild birds, representing eight orders from 1 January 2013 to 30 September 2013. Antibody prevalence was highest in wild birds of Order Suliformes (44.9%), followed by Pelecaniformes (24.4%), Anseriformes (22.7%), and Columbiformes (11.7%), with a relatively high occurrence of virulent viruses in Columbiformes (100% of virulent viruses isolated). As expected, viral shedding was comparatively much lower, and positives were only identified in Orders Accipitriformes (1.4%), Columbiformes (1.0%), Anseriformes (0.8%), and Charadriiformes (0.4%). We also demonstrate circulating virulent APMV-1 viruses of genotype VI in apparently healthy Rock Pigeons (Columba livia) from March through September in three states.