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Imidazolyl activated carbon refluxed with ethanediamine as reusable heterogeneous catalysts for Michael addition
- Liu, Wenzhu, Xiao, Jiafu, Xu, Qiong, Liu, Xianxiang, Zhong, Sheng, Huang, Hua, Zheng, Min, Kirk, Steven Robert, Yin, Dulin
- RSC advances 2018 v.9 no.1 pp. 185-191
- Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, carbon, catalysts, catalytic activity, furfural, imidazoles, moieties, nitric acid, nitrogen content, oxidation, potassium hydroxide, titration
- Imidazolyl activated carbon, denoted as AC-N, was prepared via oxidation of AC with HNO₃ (AC-O) and then refluxed with ethanediamine under mild conditions. The results showed that the N content of AC-N was 10.3%, and the surface alkali group density of AC-N was 0.96 mmol g⁻¹ from 0.78 mmol g⁻¹ carboxy group of AC-O by Boehm titration. It was revealed that the basic functional groups on the AC-N surface included imidazole and amine groups, from XPS and FT-IR. Evaluated with Michael addition of furfural, the catalytic performance of AC-N showed higher conversion and selectivity than that of commonly used base catalyst such as 2-methylimidazole and KOH. Very remarkably, AC-N showed extraordinary recyclability, in that there was no decline of conversion and selectivity after being recycled 5 times.