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B, N-dual doped sisal-based multiscale porous carbon for high-rate supercapacitors

Wu, Heng, Yuan, Wenyu, Zhao, Yingxin, Han, Daoyang, Yuan, Xiaowen, Cheng, Laifei
RSC advances 2019 v.9 no.3 pp. 1476-1486
activated carbon, ammonium, capacitance, carbonization, electrochemistry, electrodes, energy, energy density, evaporation, macropores, micropores, potassium hydroxide, sisal, surface area, tracheids
B, N dual-doped sisal-based activated carbon (BN-SAC) with a multiscale porous structure for high-rate supercapacitor electrode was prepared through a novel and facile strategy. With the inherent cellular channels serving as primary macropores, secondary mesopores and micropores are generated on the fiber surface and tracheid walls through low-pressure rapid carbonization of (NH₄)₂B₄O₇-containing sisal fibers and successive KOH activation. In addition to introducing B, N atoms into the BN-SAC, the additive also facilitates the formation of mesopores due to the rapid gas evaporation during its decomposition, leading to significantly increased specific surface area (2017 m² g⁻¹) and mesoporosity (68.6%). As a result, the BN-SAC-3 shows highly enhanced electrochemical performance including a high specific capacitance of 304 F g⁻¹, excellent rate capability (with 72.6% retention at 60 A g⁻¹) and superior cycling stability (4.6% capacitance loss after 3000 cycles). After assembling the BN-SAC-3 into symmetric supercapacitor, it shows a specific capacitance of 258 F g⁻¹ at 1 A g⁻¹ with 76.4% retention at 40 A g⁻¹ in 6 M KOH electrolyte, and delivers a maximum energy density of 24.3 W h kg⁻¹ at a power density of 612.8 W kg⁻¹ in 1 M TEABF₄/AN electrolyte. This work provides a new strategy for the synthesis of multiscale porous ACs for high-performance supercapacitors or other energy storage and conversion devices and is expected to be applied on other biomasses for large-scale production.