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Within-Season Shift in Fungicide Resistance Profiles of Botrytis cinerea in California Strawberry Fields

Cosseboom, Scott D., Ivors, Kelly L., Schnabel, Guido, Bryson, Patricia K., Holmes, Gerald J.
Plant disease 2019 v.103 no.1 pp. 59-64
Botrytis cinerea, boscalid, captan, cyprodinil, fenhexamid, fludioxonil, fungicide resistance, genes, genotype, iprodione, mixing, mutation, mycelium, phenotype, planting, pyraclostrobin, resistance management, selection pressure, strawberries, surveys, thiophanate-methyl, California
Sensitivity of Botrytis cinerea to seven fungicide chemical classes was determined for 888 isolates collected in 2016 from 47 California strawberry fields. Isolates were collected early season (minimum fungicide exposure) and late season (maximum fungicide exposure) from the same planting block in each field. Resistance was determined using a mycelial growth assay, and variable frequencies of resistance were observed to each fungicide at both sampling times (early season %, late season %): boscalid (12, 35), cyprodinil (12, 46), fenhexamid (53, 91), fludioxonil (1, 4), fluopyram (2, 7), iprodione (25, 8), isofetamid (0, 1), penthiopyrad (8, 25), pyraclostrobin (77, 98), and thiophanate-methyl (81, 96). Analysis of number of chemical class resistances (CCRs) revealed an increasing shift in CCR from the early to late season. Phenotypes of 40 isolates that were resistant or sensitive to different chemical classes were associated with presence or absence of mutations in target genes. Fungicide-resistance phenotypes determined in the mycelial growth assay closely matched (93.8%) the genotype observed. Previously described resistance-conferring mutations were found for each gene. A survey of fungicide use from 32 of the sampled fields revealed an average of 15 applications of gray mold–labeled fungicides per season at an average interval of 12 days. The most frequently applied fungicides (average number of applications during the 2016 season) were captan (7.3), pyraclostrobin (2.5), cyprodinil (2.3), fludioxonil (2.3), boscalid (1.8), and fenhexamid (1.4). Multifungicide resistance is widespread in California. Resistance management tactics that reduce selection pressure by limiting fungicide use, rotating among Fungicide Resistance Action Committee codes, and mixing/rotating site-specific fungicides with multisite fungicides need to be improved and implemented.