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Hormetic Effects of Mixtures of Carbendazim and Iprodione on the Virulence of Botrytis cinerea
- Cong, Menglong, He, Shun, Zhang, Jun, Luo, Chaoxi, Zhu, Fuxing
- Plant disease 2019 v.103 no.1 pp. 95-101
- Botrytis cinerea, carbendazim, cucumbers, culture media, hormesis, hydrogen peroxide, iprodione, leaves, mycelium, spraying, virulence
- Hormetic effects of fungicides on mycelial growth and virulence of plant pathogenic fungi have been reported, but the effects of fungicide mixtures on virulence hormesis of plant pathogens remain to be investigated. In this study, hormetic effects of mixtures of carbendazim and iprodione on the virulence of two carbendazim-resistant isolates of Botrytis cinerea were determined. Spraying carbendazim alone at 3 to 800 μg/ml exhibited hormetic effects on virulence to cucumber leaves, and carbendazim at 10 μg/ml had the maximum stimulation of 16.7% for isolate HBtom451. Spraying iprodione alone at 0.0001 to 0.0625 μg/ml exhibited hormetic effects on virulence, and iprodione at 0.025 μg/ml had the maximum stimulation of 18.7% for isolate HBtom451. However, spraying simultaneously carbendazim at 800 μg/ml and iprodione at 0.0625 μg/ml showed inhibitory effects on virulence to cucumber leaves. The mixture of carbendazim at 3 μg/ml and iprodione at 0.0001 μg/ml had much higher virulence stimulations than either fungicide at the same concentration alone. The maximum stimulation for the mixtures occurred at 10 and 0.0005 μg/ml for carbendazim and iprodione, respectively, and these concentrations were much lower than the concentration of their respective fungicide alone eliciting the maximum stimulations. The maximum stimulation amplitude for the mixture was slightly higher than that of each fungicide alone. These results demonstrated that carbendazim and iprodione mainly had dose-additive rather than amplitude-additive interactions when sprayed simultaneously with regard to virulence stimulations. Studies on virulence stimulations for mycelia treated with fungicide in potato dextrose agar showed that the maximum stimulation for the mixtures occurred at concentrations much lower than the concentration of carbendazim alone, indicating a dose-additive interaction when compared with carbendazim hormesis. Studies on potential physiological mechanisms of hormesis showed that increased tolerance to H₂O₂ may be one of the mechanisms for virulence hormesis for the mixtures of iprodione and carbendazim. These studies will advance our understanding of hormesis of fungicide mixtures.