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In Vitro Fungicide-Insensitive Profiles of Sclerotinia homoeocarpa Populations from Pennsylvania and the Surrounding Region
- Stephens, Cameron M., Kaminski, John
- Plant disease 2019 v.103 no.2 pp. 214-222
- Sclerotinia homoeocarpa, active ingredients, boscalid, geographical distribution, golf courses, iprodione, mycelium, pesticide application, phenotype, propiconazole, research facilities, thiophanate-methyl, Pennsylvania
- Repeated fungicide applications are typically required to provide adequate control of dollar spot on golf courses and may shift Sclerotinia homoeocarpa populations from sensitive to insensitive or resistant to an active ingredient. The objective of this study was to characterize the geographic distribution of fungicide-insensitive, fungicide-resistant, and multiple fungicide insensitive (MFI) S. homoeocarpa populations on golf courses in Pennsylvania and the surrounding region. S. homoeocarpa isolates (n = 681) were collected from 45 different golf courses or research facilities. Each isolate was evaluated in vitro against propiconazole, iprodione, boscalid, and thiophanate-methyl using discriminatory concentrations of 0.1, 1.0, 1,000, and 1,000 µg of active ingredient per milliliter of PDA, respectively. Relative mycelial growth (RMG) values were used to determine sensitivity or insensitivity based on comparison with a baseline population. Of the 681 isolates evaluated, 81, 80, and 85% exhibited reduced sensitivity to boscalid, iprodione, and propiconazole, respectively. A total of 41% of the isolates were resistant to thiophanate-methyl. Based on mean RMG of all isolates from each golf course, 16, 35, and 37 of the 45 golf courses exhibited reduced sensitivity to boscalid, iprodione, and propiconazole, respectively. A total of 585 isolates (86%) exhibited an MFI profile in which they were insensitive or resistant to at least two fungicides evaluated. Isolates with reduced sensitivity to boscalid, iprodione, and propiconazole, but sensitive to thiophanate-methyl, were the most common phenotype within the three-MFI profile. Fungicide insensitivity and resistance to commonly used fungicides, as well as MFI profiles, were prevalent in Pennsylvania and the surrounding areas and may cause management challenges.