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Electrochromism of Ferrocene- and Viologen-Based Redox-Active Ionic Liquids Composite

Tahara, Hironobu, Uranaka, Kazuaki, Hirano, Makoto, Ikeda, Tomoya, Sagara, Takamasa, Murakami, Hiroto
ACS applied materials & interfaces 2018 v.11 no.1 pp. 1-6
absorbance, color, durability, electric potential, electrochemistry, electrolytes, ionic liquids, materials science, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, oxidation
Redox-active ionic liquids (RAILs) require no other additional reagents such as solvent and supporting electrolyte for electrochemical reactions under undiluted condition. Viologen-based RAILs are one of the electrochromic (EC) ionic liquids with sharp color contrast and high chemical stability. An operation of an EC cell requires two electroactive elements, an EC material and a charge compensating material. In this study, an equimolar composite of a viologen-based RAIL as the EC material and a ferrocene-based RAIL as the charge compensation material, was synthesized and applied to an EC cell. The EC cell with the composite RAIL of as high concentration as 0.92 M each redox species showed good coloration efficiency (91.4 cm² C–¹ at 540 nm on 1.0 V). The coloration process of the EC cell was diffusion-limited process. The current and absorbance of the EC cell reached constant values at large enough bias voltage because of the charge recombination between reduced viologens and oxidized ferrocenes. The recombination affected rapid color erasing process. Almost no deterioration of the composite RAIL was found by ¹H NMR after 13 000 potential cycle durability experiment.