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Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV): Pathogenesis and Interaction with the Immune System

Lunney, Joan K., Fang, Ying, Ladinig, Andrea, Chen, Nanhua, Li, Yanhua, Rowland, Bob, Renukaradhya, Gourapura J.
Annual Review of Animal Biosciences 2016 v.4 no.1 pp. 129-154
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus, adjuvants, disease control, genome, genomics, host-pathogen relationships, immune system, immunity, pathogenesis, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome, reproductive traits, swine, therapeutics, transcriptomics, vaccine development, vaccines
This review addresses important issues of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection, immunity, pathogenesis, and control. Worldwide, PRRS is the most economically important infectious disease of pigs. We highlight the latest information on viral genome structure, pathogenic mechanisms, and host immunity, with a special focus on immune factors that modulate PRRSV infections during the acute and chronic/persistent disease phases. We address genetic control of host resistance and probe effects of PRRSV infection on reproductive traits. A major goal is to identify cellular/viral targets and pathways for designing more effective vaccines and therapeutics. Based on progress in viral reverse genetics, host transcriptomics and genomics, and vaccinology and adjuvant technologies, we have identified new areas for PRRS control and prevention. Finally, we highlight the gaps in our knowledge base and the need for advanced molecular and immune tools to stimulate PRRS research and field applications.