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Using prepared mixtures of ToxCast chemicals to evaluate non-targeted analysis (NTA) method performance

Sobus, Jon R., Grossman, Jarod N., Chao, Alex, Singh, Randolph, Williams, Antony J., Grulke, Christopher M., Richard, Ann M., Newton, Seth R., McEachran, Andrew D., Ulrich, Elin M.
Analytical and bioanalytical chemistry 2019 v.411 no.4 pp. 835-851
isomers, mass spectrometry, quality control, reversed-phase liquid chromatography
Non-targeted analysis (NTA) methods are increasingly used to discover contaminants of emerging concern (CECs), but the extent to which these methods can support exposure and health studies remains to be determined. EPA’s Non-Targeted Analysis Collaborative Trial (ENTACT) was launched in 2016 to address this need. As part of ENTACT, 1269 unique substances from EPA’s ToxCast library were combined to make ten synthetic mixtures, with each mixture containing between 95 and 365 substances. As a participant in the trial, we first performed blinded NTA on each mixture using liquid chromatography (LC) coupled with high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS). We then performed an unblinded evaluation to identify limitations of our NTA method. Overall, at least 60% of spiked substances could be observed using selected methods. Discounting spiked isomers, true positive rates from the blinded and unblinded analyses reached a maximum of 46% and 65%, respectively. An overall reproducibility rate of 75% was observed for substances spiked into more than one mixture and observed at least once. Considerable discordance in substance identification was observed when comparing a subset of our results derived from two separate reversed-phase chromatography methods. We conclude that a single NTA method, even when optimized, can likely characterize only a subset of ToxCast substances (and, by extension, other CECs). Rigorous quality control and self-evaluation practices should be required of labs generating NTA data to support exposure and health studies. Accurate and transparent communication of performance results will best enable meaningful interpretations and defensible use of NTA data. Graphical abstract ᅟ