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Venom gland components of the ectoparasitoid wasp, Anisopteromalus calandrae

Perkin, Lindsey C., Friesen, Kenlee S., Flinn, Paul W., Oppert, Brenda
Journal of Venom Research 2015 v.6 pp. 19-37
Anisopteromalus calandrae, Apoidea, Formicidae, Nasonia vitripennis, animal glands, catalytic activity, ectoparasites, females, genes, human diseases, immune system, insect control, insect larvae, insect pests, paralysis, peptides, proteins, seeds, sequence analysis, storage pests, transcriptome, venoms
The wasp Anisopteromalus calandrae is a small ectoparasitoid that attacks stored product pest beetle larvae that develop inside grain kernels, and is thus a potential insect control tool. The components of the venom have not been studied, but venom peptides from other organisms have been identified with potential uses as pest management tools and treatments for human diseases. We dissected female A. calandrae and collected venom and associated glands. Using high throughput sequencing, we developed a venom gland transcriptome that contained 45,432 contigs, 25,726 of which had BLASTx hits. The majority of hits were to Nasonia vitripennis, an ectoparasitoid from the same taxonomic family, as well as other bees, wasps, and ants. Gene ontology grouped sequences into eleven molecular functions, among which binding and catalytic activity had the most representatives. In this study, we highlight the most abundant sequences, including those that are likely the functional components of the venom. Specifically, we focused on genes encoding proteins potentially involved in host developmental arrest, disrupting the host immune system, host paralysis, and transcripts that support these functions. Our report is the first to characterize components of the venom gland of A. calandrae venom gland that may be useful as control tools for insect pests and other applications.