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Calcined Eggshell as a P Reactive Media Filter—Batch Tests and Column Sorption Experiment
- Bus, Agnieszka, Karczmarczyk, Agnieszka, Baryła, Anna
- Water, air, and soil pollution 2019 v.230 no.1 pp. 20
- algorithms, egg shell, models, sand filters, septic systems, sorption, sorption isotherms, temperature
- The goal of the study was to assess the sorption properties of calcined eggshells (CEs) as a P reactive media filter. The CEs were calcined in a temperature of 900 °C. A double stage test was performed: batch studies (kinetic and equilibrium) and small-scale column experiment. The estimation of optimal mass ratio of CEs for perspective usage was the additional benefit of column experiment. The short kinetic tests showed that 5 min of contact time with solution of initial concentration of 6.020 mgP-PO₄ L⁻¹ is enough to reduce the P-PO₄ in 100%. The equilibrium studies were conducted with P-PO₄ solution of 6.020 to 977.7 mg L⁻¹ with contact time of 30 min. The obtained data was compensated by non-linear regression using the Marquardt algorithm in the Statgraphics Centurion XVI. The eggshell calcined characterized by high sorption capacity (Sₘₐₓ = 72.87 mg g⁻¹) obtained from the Langmuir isotherm model with a good fit (96.77%). To choose the appropriate ratio of a sand filter to eggshells amendment, four small columns were constructed and fed with P-PO₄ solution (Cᵢₙ ≈ 5 mg L⁻¹). The percentage mass (m/m) of CEs in the columns was 0.0 (the reference one); 1.0; 2.5; and 5.0. The unit sorption obtained during 95 days of column experiment was 10.668, 4.277, and 2.286 mg P-PO₄ g⁻¹ for 1.0, 2.5, and 5.0%, respectively. For practical implementation, the most recommended addition seems to be 1% of CEs. It corresponds, e.g., to the mass of 49 kg CEs for septic tank system.