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Lead uptake by the symbiotic Daucus carota L.–Glomus intraradices system and its effect on the morphology of extra- and intraradical fungal microstructures

Alvarado-López, Carlos Juan, Dasgupta-Schubert, Nabanita, Ambriz, Jorge Enrique, Arteaga-Velazquez, Juan Carlos, Villegas, Javier A.
Environmental science and pollution research international 2019 v.26 no.1 pp. 381-391
Daucus carota, Rhizophagus intraradices, X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, absorption, apoplast, carrots, energy-dispersive X-ray analysis, host plants, in vitro culture, iron, lead, metal tolerance, microstructure, mycelium, mycorrhizal fungi, nitrates, phytoremediation, roots, spores, traffic, vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizae
This work examines the strategies adopted by an arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiotic system to ameliorate environmental Pb stress by examining the concentrations of P, Fe, and Pb in the fungal microstructures and the host’s root. In vitro cultures of Ri-T DNA-transformed carrot (Daucus carota L.) roots were inoculated with Glomus intraradices and treated with Pb(NO₃)₂ solution and the extraradical spores and mycelia (S/M) and the root with the vesicles, mycelia, and root cells were subsequently analyzed by polarized energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence (PEDXRF) spectrometry. Upon Pb treatment, within the root, the percentages of mycorrhizal colonization, the vesicles, and mycelia increased as well as the areas of the vesicles and the (extraradical) spores, although the number of spores and arbuscules decreased. The S/M and the mycorrhizal root showed enhanced concentrations of Pb, Fe, and P. These were particularly marked for Fe in the Pb-treated cultures. This indicates a synergistic relationship between the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus and the host that confers a higher Pb tolerance to the latter by the induction of higher Fe absorption in the host. The intraradical vesicle, mycelia, and arbuscule numbers are interpreted as a “tactic to divert” the intraradical Pb traffic away from the root cells to the higher affinity cell walls of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) microstructures in the apoplast. The results of this work show that the symbiosis between the AMF G. intraradices and the host plant D. carota distinctly improves the latter’s Pb tolerance, and imply that the appropriate metal tolerant host-AMF combinations could be employed in process designs for the phytoremediation of Pb.