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Response of the antioxidant enzymes of rats following oral administration of metal-oxide nanoparticles (Al2O3, CuO, TiO2)

Canli, Esin G., Ila, Hasan B., Canli, Mustafa
Environmental science and pollution research international 2019 v.26 no.1 pp. 938-945
Rattus norvegicus, aluminum, aluminum oxide, antioxidants, catalase, copper, copper nanoparticles, cupric oxide, ecotoxicology, enzyme activity, females, glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione transferase, glutathione-disulfide reductase, liver, oral administration, rats, superoxide dismutase, titanium, titanium dioxide, transmission electron microscopes, transmission electron microscopy
Metal-oxide nanoparticles (NPs), as a new emerging technological compound, promise a wide range of usage areas and consequently have the potential to cause environmental toxicology. In the present work, aluminum (Al₂O₃), copper (CuO), and titanium (TiO₂) nanoparticles (NPs) were administered via oral gavage to mature female rats (Rattus norvegicus var. albinos) for 14 days with a dose series of 0 (control), 0.5, 5, and 50 (mg/kg b.w./day). Enzyme activities of the antioxidant system such as catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione S-transferase (GST), and glutathione reductase (GR) in the liver were measured. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) images of the liver were taken to demonstrate NP accumulation and distribution in liver tissue. Data showed that all NPs caused some significant (P > 0.05) alterations in the activities of antioxidant enzymes. CAT activity increased after CuO and TiO₂ administrations, while SOD activity decreased after Al₂O₃ administration. The activities of enzymes associated with glutathione (GR, GPx, GST) metabolisms were also significantly altered by NPs. GPx activity increased in rats received Al₂O₃, CuO NPs, while GR activity increased only by Al₂O₃. However, there were increases (TiO₂) and decreases (CuO) in GST activity in the liver of rats. TEM images of the liver demonstrated that all NPs accumulated in the liver, even at the lowest dose. This study indicated that the antioxidant enzymes in the liver of rats were affected by all NPs, suggesting the antioxidant system of rats suffered after NP administration.