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Endocrine disruption as an adverse effect of non-endocrine targeting pharmaceuticals

Sabir, Shakila, Akhtar, Muhammad Furqan, Saleem, Ammara
Environmental science and pollution research international 2019 v.26 no.2 pp. 1277-1286
adverse effects, antineoplastic agents, burden of disease, cosmetics, developed countries, diabetes mellitus, economic costs, endocrine-disrupting chemicals, female reproductive system, food composition, industrial wastes, insulin resistance, iodine, males, packaging materials, pesticides, plastics, pollutants, thyroid hormones, toxicity
Endocrine disruptors have gained widespread attention owing to their severe adverse health impacts. These produce enormous burden of disease and are associated with high economic cost especially in developed countries. Environmental pollutants causing endocrine disruption include pesticides, industrial wastes, packaging materials, food constituents, plastics, and cosmetic products. Likewise, pharmaceutical drugs have the endocrine disrupting potential through a wide array of mechanisms. Antipsychotic, antiepileptic, antihypertensive, antiviral, antidiabetic, and anticancer drugs are among the foremost non-hormonal endocrine disruptors. Several drugs affect thyroid hormone synthesis via interaction with iodine uptake to the release of T3 and T4 by thyrocytes. Prolonged use of some drugs increase susceptibility to diabetes mellitus either by direct destruction of β cells or enhanced insulin resistance. Other drugs may cause serious developmental defects in male or female reproductive system. Appropriate understanding of the mechanisms of endocrine disruption associated with non-hormonal drugs will guide future drug development and help us prevent and cure endocrine-related toxicity of pharmaceuticals. Therefore, this review focuses on endocrine disruption by pharmaceutical drugs as their side effect.