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A review of the ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry, and pharmacology of Changium smyrnioides Wolff

Lei, Lu-Jing, Wang, Wen-Le, Wang, Jie, Lv, Li-juan, Li, Min-Hui
Natural medicines 2019 v.73 no.1 pp. 1-10
Changium, Lepidorhombus whiffiagonis, antioxidant activity, bioactive compounds, blood, cough, essential oils, fatty acids, herbs, immunomodulation, lungs, medicinal plants, nausea, pharmacology, phenylpropanoids, phytosterols, protective effect, tea, therapeutics, toxicity, traditional medicine, vomiting, China
Changium smyrnioides Wolff is a monotypic species of the genus Changium Wolff which is only found in eastern China. C. smyrnioides has been used as a traditional medicine for ages to treat cough, vomiting, nausea, megrim, and carbuncle. It is also widely used to brew medicated liquor and health tea with other herbs in order to moisten the lungs and nourish blood and yin. This review comprehensively summarizes the up-to-date information on the botanical characterization, distribution, traditional uses, ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry, pharmacology, and toxicity of C. smyrnioides based on studies published in recent years. Phytochemical investigations have revealed that phenylpropanoids, volatile oils, fatty acids, phytosterols, and other bioactive compounds are contained in C. smyrnioides. Crude extracts and monomeric compounds isolated from C. smyrnioides have significant effects on the respiratory, immune, and vascular systems and exhibit favourable activities such as antitussive, eliminating phlegm, anti-asthmatic, immunoregulatory, antioxidant, anti-tumor, anti-fatigue, anti-hypoxia, and anti-atherosclerotic effects. C. smyrnioides is a promising medicinal herb with immense therapeutic and health-promoting effects. Therefore, further studies on the bioactive compounds and mechanisms of C. smyrnioides are necessary. Additional clinical and toxicological studies are warranted to evaluate its safety.