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Fatty Acids and Antimicrobial Properties of Red Table Wine

Khalilova, E. A., Kotenko, S. Ts., Aliverdieva, D. A., Islammagomedova, E. A., Abakarova, A. A., Gasanov, R. Z., Millueva, A. G.
Russian agricultural sciences 2018 v.44 no.6 pp. 576-581
Escherichia coli, Gram-positive bacteria, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Proteus vulgaris, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Salmonella Typhimurium, Shigella sonnei, Staphylococcus saprophyticus, agar, antibacterial properties, antioxidants, cholesterol, docosahexaenoic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, fatty acid composition, flavor, gas chromatography, grapes, humans, immune system, linoleic acid, linolenic acid, lipid metabolism, lipoproteins, liquid chromatography, nutrition, oleic acid, red wines, saturated fatty acids, sparkling wines, table wines, wine industry, wine yeasts
The article presents research findings on fatty acids and antibacterial properties of red wine, which is known for its unique physiological effect on the human body. The subjects of research were red table wines (the vintage of 2016) produced at the Derbent sparkling wine factory from grapes grown in Derbentskii district of the Dagestan Republic. Wines were produced from a Cabernet grape variety from the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Y-4270 (experiment) and Saccharomyces cerevisiae Derbent-19 (control) wine yeast strains. Fatty acid compositions using gas-liquid chromatography and the antibacterial properties against gram-positive bacteria with a standard agar diffusion technique were examined. A total of 28 fatty acids (C₁₀–C₂₂) were identified in all samples of wine. The experimental sample was noted for a reduced content (by 8.63%) of saturated fatty acids undesirable for living organisms as the factor of nutrition that increases levels of cholesterol and atherogenic lipoprotein. The total amount of unsaturated fatty acids was observed to increase by 18.67% due to the dominance of С₁₈:₂, С₁₈:₂ω₋₆, and С₂₄:₁ω₋₉. The predominance of polyunsaturated fatty acids (double), monounsaturated (by 9.56%), and polyenoic fatty acids (by 12.09%), which contribute to the composition of wine flavor, was detected. The amount of ω-6 acids is 42.12% higher, primarily owing to linoleic C₁₈:₂ω₋₆ (by 16.48%) and γ-Linolenic C₁₈:₃ω₋₆ (almost by a factor of four) acids. A significant content of ω-3 acids (almost by a factor of 11) was revealed, specifically, linolenic C₁₈:₃ω₋₃, eicosapentaenoic C₂₀:₅ω₋₃, and docosahexaenoic C₂₂:₆ω₋₃ acids, which improve lipid metabolism and have a positive effect on the immune system. In general, the total content of ω-9 acids was sufficiently high in both samples of wine due to the predominance of oleic C₁₈:₁ω₋₉ acid. The experimental red table wine has been found to possess antibacterial properties against bacteria Shigella sonnei, Salmonella typhimurium, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris, Proteus mirabilis, and Staphylococcus saprophyticus, resulting from the constituent conditions of the wine, including polyphenolic and antioxidant compounds, which provide the product with improved biochemical and nutrient properties.