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Biofilms: Architecture, Resistance, Quorum Sensing and Control Mechanisms

Saxena, Priti, Joshi, Yogesh, Rawat, Kartik, Bisht, Renu
Indian journal of microbiology 2019 v.59 no.1 pp. 3-12
antibiotic resistance, antibiotics, bacteria, biofilm, biosurfactants, quorum sensing, virulence, virulent strains
Biofilm is a mode of living employed by many pathogenic and environmental microbes to proliferate as multicellular aggregates on inert inanimate or biological substrates. Several microbial diseases are associated with biofilms that pose challenges in treatment with antibiotics targeting individual cells. Bacteria in biofilms secrete exopolymeric substances that contribute to architectural stability and provide a secure niche to inhabiting cells. Quorum sensing (QS) plays essential roles in biofilm development. Pathogenic bacteria in biofilms utilize QS mechanisms to activate virulence and develop antibiotic resistance. This review is a brief overview of biofilm research and provides updates on recent understandings on biofilm development, antibiotic resistance and transmission, and importance of QS mechanisms. Strategies to combat biofilm associated diseases including anti-biofilm substances, quorum quenching molecules, bio-surfactants and competitive inhibitors are briefly discussed. The review concludes with updates on recent approaches utilized for biofilm inhibition and provides perspectives for further research in the field.