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Developments in the Monitoring of Patulin in Fruits Using Liquid Chromatography: an Overview

Sadok, Ilona, Stachniuk, Anna, Staniszewska, Magdalena
Food analytical methods 2019 v.12 no.1 pp. 76-93
European Union, apple juice, food processing, food storage, fruits, human nutrition, humans, liquid chromatography, mass spectrometry, monitoring, nectar, patulin, quantitative analysis, small fruits, stone fruits, toxicity
Patulin is a mycotoxin that exhibits a number of toxic effects in animals. The main sources of patulin intake in human diet that was shown for EU consumers are apple juice and nectar and for this reason, apple-based food is most often monitored for this mycotoxin. However, the presence of patulin in other fruits, including stone fruits, and soft fruits has been reported as well. Most of them are seasonal, suitable for consumption for short time, and are usually processed in order to be commercially available throughout the year. Patulin can also be generated during food storage and remains stable over food processing procedures. Therefore, constant monitoring of different fruit-based products ought to be carried out to provide proper estimation of human exposure to this toxin. The preferred approach used for mycotoxin determination in a variety of foods is liquid chromatography (LC) allowing quantitative analysis of patulin content. This paper presents recently proposed LC methods with ultraviolet and mass spectrometric detection for patulin quantification in fruits and derived products. We focus on developments in sample preparation and the applied analytical conditions.