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Coreopsis tinctoria Nutt ameliorates high glucose-induced renal fibrosis and inflammation via the TGF-β1/SMADS/AMPK/NF-κB pathways

Yao, Lan, Li, Jie, Li, Linlin, Li, Xinxia, Zhang, Rui, Zhang, Yujie, Mao, Xinmin
BMC complementary and alternative medicine 2019 v.19 no.1 pp. 14
Coreopsis tinctoria, alternative medicine, bioactive compounds, diabetic nephropathy, diarrhea, enzymes, ethyl acetate, fibrosis, glucose, herbal tea, hyperplasia, hypertension, in vivo studies, inflammation, ingredients, models, protective effect, rats, signal transduction, traditional medicine, transcription factor NF-kappa B, transforming growth factor beta 1, China
BACKGROUND: Coreopsis tinctoria Nutt is an ethnomedicine widely used in Xinjiang, China. It is consumed as a herbal tea by local Uyghur people to treat high blood pressure and diarrhea. Our previous study confirmed that the ethyl acetate extract of Coreopsis tinctoria (AC) had a protective effect on diabetic nephropathy (DN) in an in vivo experiment. Here we aim to elucidate the protective mechanism of AC and marein, the main ingredient in Coreopsis tinctoria on renal fibrosis and inflammation in vitro under high glucose (HG) conditions. METHODS: A HG-induced barrier dysfunction model in rat mesangial cells (HBZY-1) was established. The cells were exposed to AC and marein and/or HG for 24 h. Then, the renal protective effects of AC and marein via transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1)/Smads, AMP-activated kinase protein (AMPK), and nuclear factor kappa beta (NF-κB) signaling were assessed. RESULTS: Both AC and marein suppressed rat mesangial cell hyperplasia and significantly attenuated the expression of HG-disrupted fibrotic and inflammatory proteins in HBZY-1 cells. It was also confirmed that AC and marein remarkably attenuated HG-induced renal inflammation and fibrosis by regulating the AMPK, TGF-β1/Smads, and NF-κB signaling pathways. CONCLUSION: These results indicated that AC and marein may delay the progression of DN, at least in part, by suppressing HG-induced renal inflammation and fibrosis. Marein may be one of the bioactive compounds in AC.