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Genetic diversity of the Yokose virus, XYBX1332, isolated from bats (Myotis daubentonii) in China

Feng, Yun, Ren, Xiaojie, Xu, Ziqian, Fu, Shihong, Li, Xiaolong, Zhang, Hailin, Yang, Weihong, Zhang, Yuzhen, Liang, Guodong
Virology journal 2019 v.16 no.1 pp. 8
Myotis, Yokose virus, amino acids, blood serum, computer software, cytopathogenicity, genetic variation, genome, geographical distribution, islands, mammals, nucleotides, open reading frames, phylogeny, strains, viruses, China, Japan
BACKGROUND: Yokose virus was first isolated from bats (Miniopterus fuliginosus) collected in Yokosuka, Japan, in 1971, and is a new member of the family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus. In this study, we isolated a Yokose virus from a serum sample of Myotis daubentonii (order Chiroptera, family Vespertilionidae) collected in Yunnan province, China in 2013. METHODS: The serum specimens of bat were used to inoculate in BHK-21 and Vero E6 cells for virus isolation. Then the viral complete genome sequence was obtained and was used for phylogenetic analysis performed by BEAST software package. RESULTS: The virus was shown to have cytopathic effects in mammalian cells (BHK-21 and Vero E6). Genome sequencing indicated that it has a single open reading frame (ORF), with a genome of 10,785 nucleotides in total. Phylogenetic analysis of the viral genome suggests that XYBX1332 is a Yokose virus (YOKV) of the genus Flavivirus. Nucleotide and amino acid homology levels of the ORF of XYBX1332 and Oita-36, the original strain of YOKV, were 72 and 82%, respectively. The ORFs of XYBX1332 and Oita-36 encode 3422 and 3425 amino acids, respectively. In addition, the non-coding regions (5′- and 3′-untranslated regions [UTRs]) of these two strains differ in length and the homology of the 5′- and 3′-UTRs was 81.5 and 78.3%, respectively. CONCLUSION: The isolation of YOKV (XYBX1332) from inland China thousands of kilometers from Yokosuka, Japan, suggests that the geographical distribution of YOKV is not limited to the islands of Japan and that it can also exist in the inland areas of Asia. However, there are large differences between the Chinese and Japanese YOKV strains in viral genome.