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Effect of the lipoxygenase inhibitor baicalein on bone tissue and bone healing in ovariectomized rats

Saul, Dominik, Weber, Marie, Zimmermann, Marc Hendrik, Kosinsky, Robyn Laura, Hoffmann, Daniel Bernd, Menger, Björn, Taudien, Stefan, Lehmann, Wolfgang, Komrakova, Marina, Sehmisch, Stephan
Nutrition & metabolism 2019 v.16 no.1 pp. 4
acid phosphatase, ashing, biomechanics, bone formation, bone fractures, bone resorption, callus, callus formation, chemical constituents of plants, enzyme inhibitors, females, femur, fracture fixation, gene expression, histology, laboratory animals, lipoxygenase, messenger RNA, micro-computed tomography, osteocalcin, osteoporosis, osteotomy, ovariectomy, rats, tibia
BACKGROUND: Osteoporosis is one of the world’s major medical burdens in the twenty-first century. Pharmaceutical intervention currently focusses on decelerating bone loss, but phytochemicals such as baicalein, which is a lipoxygenase inhibitor, may rescue bone loss. Studies evaluating the effect of baicalein in vivo are rare. METHODS: We administered baicalein to sixty-one three-month-old female Sprague-Dawley rats. They were divided into five groups, four of which were ovariectomized (OVX) and one non-ovariectomized (NON-OVX). Eight weeks after ovariectomy, bilateral tibial osteotomy with plate osteosynthesis was performed and bone formation quantified. Baicalein was administered subcutaneously using three doses (C1: 1 mg/kg BW; C2: 10 mg/kg BW; and C3: 100 mg/kg BW) eight weeks after ovariectomy for four weeks. Finally, femora and tibiae were collected. Biomechanical tests, micro-CT, ashing, histological and gene expression analyses were performed. RESULTS: Biomechanical properties were unchanged in tibiae and reduced in femora. In tibiae, C1 treatment enhanced callus density and cortical width and decreased callus area. In the C3 group, callus formation was reduced during the first 3 weeks after osteotomy, correlating to a higher mRNA expression of Osteocalcin, Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase and Rankl. In femora, baicalein treatments did not alter bone parameters. CONCLUSIONS: Baicalein enhanced callus density and cortical width but impaired early callus formation in tibiae. In femora, it diminished the biomechanical properties and calcium-to-phosphate ratio. Thus, it is not advisable to apply baicalein to treat early bone fractures. To determine the exact effects on bone healing, further studies in which baicalein treatments are started at different stages of healing are needed.