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Dietary supplement of Smilax china L. ethanol extract alleviates the lipid accumulation by activating AMPK pathways in high-fat diet fed mice

Yang, Licong, Zhao, Yan, Pan, Yongfang, Li, Dongming, Zheng, Guodong
Nutrition & metabolism 2019 v.16 no.1 pp. 6
AMP-activated protein kinase, Smilax china, acyl-CoA oxidase, adipose tissue, adverse effects, beta oxidation, biosynthesis, blood chemistry, body weight changes, carnitine palmitoyltransferase, cholesterol, enzyme activity, fatty acids, gene expression, high fat diet, hydrolysis, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, lipolysis, liver, messenger RNA, mice, obesity, public health, therapeutics, triacylglycerol lipase, triacylglycerols
BACKGROUND: Obesity has become a public health concern worldwide because it is linked to numerous metabolic disorders, such as hyperlipidemia, hypertension and cardiovascular disease. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop new therapeutic strategies that are efficacious and have minimal side effects in obesity treatment. This study examined the effect of dietary supplement of Smilax china L. ethanol extract (SCLE) on high-fat diet (HFD) induced obesity. METHODS: Fifty ICR mice were fed a normal diet, high-fat diet (HFD) or HFD supplemented with 0.25, 0.5% or 1% SCLE for 8 weeks. Body weight, intraperitioneal adipose tissue (IPAT) weight, serum biochemical parameters, and liver lipids were measured. Activity, mRNA and protein expressions of lipid metabolism-related enzymes were analyzed. RESULTS: Over 0.5% SCLE had reduced cholesterol biosynthesis by the activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), which subsequently suppressed the mRNA expression of both sterol regulatory element binding protein-2 and 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase. Thus, the plasma and liver cholesterol concentrations in the HFD-fed mice were decreased. AMPK activation caused by SCLE also significantly upregulated lipolysis by enhancing adipose triglyceride lipase and hormone-sensitive lipase activities. This accelerated triglyceride hydrolysis and fatty acid release. Finally, SCLE increased carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 and acyl-CoA oxidase activities, which further promoted fatty acid β-oxidation. CONCLUSION: SCLE could lead to a decrease in body weight gain and fat mass by inhibiting the lipid synthesis and promoting lipolysis and β-oxidation in HFD fed mice. The underlying mechanism is probably associated with regulating AMPK pathway.