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Secretome analysis of Strongyloides venezuelensis parasitic stages reveals that soluble and insoluble proteins are involved in its parasitism
- Maeda, Yasunobu, Palomares-Rius, Juan Emilio, Hino, Akina, Afrin, Tanzila, Mondal, Shakhinur Islam, Nakatake, Ayako, Maruyama, Haruhiko, Kikuchi, Taisei
- Parasites & vectors 2019 v.12 no.1 pp. 21
- Strongyloides venezuelensis, embryogenesis, enzyme activity, females, gastrointestinal system, glycolysis, helminths, histones, hosts, larvae, mass spectrometry, models, parasitism, rats, secretion, trypsin inhibitors
- BACKGROUND: Parasites excrete and secrete a wide range of molecules that act as the primary interface with their hosts and play critical roles in establishing parasitism during different stages of infection. Strongyloides venezuelensis is a gastrointestinal parasite of rats that is widely used as a laboratory model and is known to produce both soluble and insoluble (adhesive) secretions during its parasitic stages. However, little is known about the constituents of these secretions. RESULTS: Using mass spectrometry, we identified 436 proteins from the infective third-stage larvae (iL3s) and 196 proteins from the parasitic females of S. venezuelensis. The proteins that were secreted by the iL3s were enriched with peptidase activity, embryo development and the oxidation-reduction process, while those of the parasitic females were associated with glycolysis, DNA binding (histones) and other unknown functions. Trypsin inhibitor-like domain-containing proteins were identified as the main component of the adhesive secretion from parasitic females. An absence of secretion signals in many of the proteins indicated that they are secreted via non-classical secretion pathways. CONCLUSIONS: We found that S. venezuelensis secretes a wide range of proteins to establish parasitism. This includes proteins that have previously been identified as being involved in parasitism in other helminths as well as proteins that are unique to this species. These findings provide insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying Strongyloides parasitism.