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Comparative bioinformatic analysis suggests that specific dauer-like signalling pathway components regulate Toxocara canis development and migration in the mammalian host

Ma, Guangxu, Wang, Tao, Korhonen, Pasi K., Nie, Shuai, Reid, Gavin E., Stroehlein, Andreas J., Koehler, Anson V., Chang, Bill C. H., Hofmann, Andreas, Young, Neil D., Gasser, Robin B.
Parasites & vectors 2019 v.12 no.1 pp. 32
Ascaris suum, Caenorhabditis elegans, Toxocara canis, acids, antagonists, anthelmintics, bioinformatics, data collection, diapause, evolution, genes, genomics, hormones, host-parasite relationships, insulin receptor substrate proteins, larvae, liquid chromatography, mammals, mass spectrometry, mothers against decapentaplegic homolog proteins, parasites, protein-serine-threonine kinases, receptors, signal transduction, tissues, transcriptomics, transforming growth factor beta
BACKGROUND: Toxocara canis is quite closely related to Ascaris suum but its biology is more complex, involving a phase of arrested development (diapause or hypobiosis) in tissues as well as transplacental and transmammary transmission routes. In the present study, we explored and compared dauer-like signalling pathways of T. canis and A. suum to infer which components in these pathways might associate with, or regulate, this added complexity in T. canis. METHODS: Guided by information for Caenorhabditis elegans, we bioinformatically inferred and compared components of dauer-like signalling pathways in T. canis and A. suum using genomic and transcriptomic data sets. In these two ascaridoids, we also explored endogenous dafachronic acids (DAs), which are known to be critical in regulating larval developmental processes in C. elegans and other nematodes, by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). RESULTS: Orthologues of C. elegans dauer signalling genes were identified in T. canis (n = 55) and A. suum (n = 51), inferring the presence of a dauer-like signalling pathway in both species. Comparisons showed clear differences between C. elegans and these ascaridoids as well as between T. canis and A. suum, particularly in the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) and insulin-like signalling pathways. Specifically, in both A. suum and T. canis, there was a paucity of genes encoding SMAD transcription factor-related protein (daf-3, daf-5, daf-8 and daf-14) and insulin/insulin-like peptide (daf-28, ins-4, ins-6 and ins-7) homologues, suggesting an evolution and adaptation of the signalling pathway in these parasites. In T. canis, there were more orthologues coding for homologues of antagonist insulin-like peptides (Tc-ins-1 and Tc-ins-18), an insulin receptor substrate (Tc-ist-1) and a serine/threonine kinase (Tc-akt-1) than in A. suum, suggesting potentiated functional roles for these molecules in regulating larval diapause and reactivation. A relatively conserved machinery was proposed for DA synthesis in the two ascaridoids, and endogenous Δ4- and Δ7-DAs were detected in them by LC-MS analysis. Differential transcription analysis between T. canis and A. suum suggests that ins-17 and ins-18 homologues are specifically involved in regulating development and migration in T. canis larvae in host tissues. CONCLUSION: The findings of this study provide a basis for functional explorations of insulin-like peptides, signalling hormones (i.e. DAs) and related nuclear receptors, proposed to link to development and/or parasite-host interactions in T. canis. Elucidating the functional roles of these molecules might contribute to the discovery of novel anthelmintic targets in ascaridoids.