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Coagulation, flocculation, dissolved air flotation and filtration in the removal of Giardia spp. and Cryptosporidium spp. from water supply
- Andreoli, Fernando César, Sabogal-Paz, Lyda Patricia
- Environmental technology 2019 v.40 no.5 pp. 654-663
- Cryptosporidium, Giardia, air, calcium carbonate, coagulation, dissociation, environmental technology, filtration, flocculation, immunomagnetic separation, oocysts, turbidity, water supply
- Removing protozoa from a water supply using coagulation, flocculation, dissolved air flotation (DAF) and filtration on a bench scale was evaluated. Calcium carbonate flocculation with and without immunomagnetic separation (IMS) was chosen to detect Giardia spp. cysts and Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts in the studied samples. The results indicated that DAF removed between 1.31 log and 1.79 log of cysts and between 1.08 log and 1.42 log of oocysts. The performance was lower in filtration, with the removal of 1.07 log–1.44 log for cysts and 0.82 log–0.98 log for oocysts. The coagulation, flocculation, DAF and filtration steps removed more than 2.2 log of cysts and oocysts from the water studied. However, protozoa were detected in the filtered water, even with turbidity values of 0.2 NTU. The recovery of the detection method met the international criteria and was higher when there was no IMS. Including the third acid dissociation in the IMS was critical to improve the performance of the protocol tested. However, there was an increase in the technical and analytical complexity and costs. It was also observed that the efficiency of the treatment was linked to the performance of the selected method of detecting protozoa.