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A Novel Method for Generation of a Fingerprint Using Electronic Nose on the Example of Rapeseed Spoilage

Rusinek, Robert, Gancarz, Marek, Krekora, Magdalena, Nawrocka, Agnieszka
Journal of food science 2019 v.84 no.1 pp. 51-58
Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, cleaning, computer software, electronic nose, food microbiology, fungi, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, headspace analysis, metabolites, polysaccharides, principal component analysis, quality control, rapeseed, rapid methods, raw materials, semiconductors, spoilage, volatile organic compounds
The paper presents application of a new three‐parameter method for identification of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and creation of fingerprints based on the impregnation time (tIM), cleaning time (tCL), and maximum response ([ΔR/R]ₘₐₓ) of chemically sensing sensors for detecting spoilage of agricultural commodities. The novelty of this method consists in the use of two additional parameters: an impregnation time and a cleaning time for the first time. An Agrinose built of eight metal oxide semiconductors was used for identification of loss in the rapeseed quality during a short period of storage after harvest. Principal component analysis was applied as a method of data analysis to verify the suitability of the new three‐parameter method and visualization of groups of different quality of raw materials. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy spectra for identification of the infrared bands of fungal polysaccharides and gas chromatography‐mass spectrometry analysis of the headspace was applied to describe volatile metabolite contents in reference to the electronic nose technique. The investigations and analyses have demonstrated that the new three‐parameter method for determination of volatile compounds ([ΔR/R]ₘₐₓ, tIM, tCL) describes the changes in VOCs more efficiently than the single‐parameter approach based only on the maximum sensor response ([ΔR/R]ₘₐₓ). The proposed method for generation of electronic fingerprints clearly discriminated between rapeseed samples infected with field and storage microflora. Three‐parameters method can be useful for quality control in food microbiology and safety, as a rapid method of analysis and detection, including electronic nose sensor technology. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: The use of the proposed method for generation of fingerprints requires no interference with the hardware of the electronic nose but necessitates modification of the software only. This facilitates implementation of the three‐parameter method in available devices. This kind of methods and devices can be useful for example in storage process with active ventilation.