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GC‐MS study of changes in polar/mid‐polar and volatile compounds in Persian lime (Citrus latifolia) during fruit growth

Ledesma‐Escobar, Carlos A, Priego‐Capote, Feliciano, Robles‐Olvera, Víctor J, García‐Torres, Rosalía, Reyes De Corcuera, José I, Luque de Castro, María D
Journal of the science of food and agriculture 2019 v.99 no.3 pp. 1020-1028
Citrus latifolia, analysis of variance, beta-pinene, bioactive compounds, citrus fruits, flowering, fruiting, gamma-terpinene, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, limonene, malic acid, metabolites, principal component analysis, sesquiterpenoids, solid phase microextraction, sugars, volatile compounds
BACKGROUND: Citrus fruits possess a high content of bioactive compounds whose changes during fruit maturation have not been studied in depth. Fruits were sampled from week 1, after fruit onset (7 days after flowering), to week 14. Volatile compounds isolated by headspace–solid‐phase microextraction and polar extracts from all samples were analyzed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. RESULTS: The relative abundance of 107 identified metabolites allowed differences among samples at different stages of fruit growth to be established. Principal component analysis showed a clear discrimination among samples, and analysis of variance revealed significant differences in 94 out of the 107 metabolites. Among total volatiles, monoterpenes increased their relative abundance from 86% to 94% during fruit growth, d‐limonene, γ‐terpinene and β‐pinene being the most abundant; conversely, sesquiterpenes decreased from 11.5% to 2.8%, β‐bisabolene and α‐bergamotene being the most concentrated. Sugars, in general, exhibited a gradual increase in abundance, reaching a maximum between weeks 9 and 12. Citric and malic acids, representing approximately 90% of the total identified carboxylic acids, reached a maximum concentration at commercial maturity (week 14). CONCLUSION: Of the 107 tentatively identified metabolites during Persian lime growth, sugars, carboxylic acids, and volatiles were those that experienced more significant changes and more clearly created differences among fruit growth stages. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry