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Getting closer: vein density in C4 leaves

Kumar, Dhinesh, Kellogg, Elizabeth A.
Thenew phytologist 2019 v.221 no.3 pp. 1260-1267
C4 plants, auxins, brassinosteroids, carbon dioxide fixation, food availability, grasses, leaf development, leaves, photosynthesis, transcription factors
Contents Summary 1260 I. Introduction 1260 II. Molecular and genetic mechanisms of C₄ leaf venation 1262 III. Conclusions and future perspectives 1266 Acknowledgements 1266 References 1266 SUMMARY: C₄ grasses are major contributors to the world's food supply. Their highly efficient method of carbon fixation is a unique adaptation that combines close vein spacing and distinct photosynthetic cell types. Despite its importance, the molecular genetic basis of C₄ leaf development is still poorly understood. Here we summarize current knowledge of leaf venation and review recent progress in understanding molecular and genetic regulation of vascular patterning events in C₄ plants. Evidence points to the interplay of auxin, brassinosteroids, SHORTROOT/SCARECROW and INDETERMINATE DOMAIN transcription factors. Identification and functional characterization of candidate regulators acting early in vascular development will be essential for further progress in understanding the precise regulation of these processes.