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Community structure and fibrolytic activities of anaerobic rumen fungi in dromedary camels

Rabee, Alaa. E., Forster, Robert J., Elekwachi, Chijioke O., Kewan, Kkaled Z., Sabra, Ebrahim A., Shawket, Safinaze M., Mahrous, Hoda A., Khamiss, Omaima A.
Journal of basic microbiology 2019 v.59 no.1 pp. 101-110
Camelus dromedarius, Neocallimastix, Trifolium alexandrinum, alfalfa hay, anaerobes, camels, carbon, cellulose, community structure, endo-1,4-beta-glucanase, feces, fermentation, forage, fungal culture, fungi, grazing, hemicellulose, internal transcribed spacers, lignocellulose, rumen, rumen fungi, wheat straw, xylanases
Anaerobic fungi colonize the rumen and degrade cellulose and hemicellulose, which enable them to be key players in the lignocellulose fermentation. Consequently, an expansion of knowledge about rumen fungi could increase animal productivity, utilization of lignified forages like alfalfa hay, and enhance fibrolytic enzymes production. Here, we used an Internal Transcribed Spacer 1 (ITS1) clone library to investigate the anaerobic rumen fungi in camel and to investigate their ability to produce cellulase and xylanase in vitro. Rumen fluid was collected from camels fed Egyptian clover (n = 14), and wheat straw (n = 7) and fecal samples were collected from camels fed wheat straw and concentrates (n = 5), or natural grazing plants (n = 10). Neocallimastix and Cyllamyces were the most abundant anaerobic fungi in all camel groups. An anaerobic rumen fungi media containing alfalfa hay as a carbon source was inoculated by rumen and fecal samples to assess the ability of anaerobic rumen fungi in camel gut to produce cellulase and xylanase. The anaerobic gut fungi in the camel is diverse and has cellulolytic and xylanolytic activities, fungal culture from rumen samples of camel fed wheat straw (R2) exhibited highest cellulase production. In addition, many of the sequences in the current study have no equivalent cultured representative, indicating a novel diversity within the camel gut.