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β‐cyclodextrin modified g‐C3N4 nanosheet: a fluorescent drug carrier with ultrahigh drug loading capacity and pH‐responsive release

Liu, Shanshan, Dong, Wei, Zeng, Xiongfeng, Guo, Zhaoliang, Zong, Peixiao, Li, Bingdong, Meng, Xianguang, Zuo, Guifu
Journal of chemical technology and biotechnology 2019 v.94 no.2 pp. 628-633
Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, beta-cyclodextrin, carbon nitride, cell viability, doxorubicin, drug carriers, fluorescence, hydrochloric acid, hydrogen bonding, nanosheets, pH, phagocytosis, spectrophotometers, transmission electron microscopy, viability assays
BACKGROUND: β‐cyclodextrin modified g‐C₃N₄ (β‐CD/g‐C₃N₄) nanosheets were successfully synthesized and developed as a novel drug carrier of doxorubicin hydrochloride (DOX•HCl). The prepared samples were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X‐ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The drug‐loading and drug release was measured by a UV–visible spectrophotometer. Moreover, cell viability tests were carried out to evaluate the inhibition ratio of β‐CD/g‐C₃N₄‐DOX•HCl and bulk g‐C₃N₄‐DOX•HCl. RESULTS: The FTIR result confirmed that β‐CD and g‐C₃N₄ are linked by hydrogen bonds. The XRD and TEM results showed that β‐CD/g‐C₃N₄ has nanosheet structure with size range 150–300 nm. The drug‐loading ratio rises sharply in the first 14 h and reaches a maximum of 93%. Moreover, β‐CD/g‐C₃N₄ nanocomplex showed a pH‐responsive DOX•HCl release with a release ratio of 80% at pH = 5, which is two times higher than that of bulk g‐C₃N₄. Cell viability tests demonstrated that the β‐CD/g‐C₃N₄‐DOX•HCl exhibit a higher inhibition ratio on MG63 cells than bulk g‐C₃N₄‐DOX•HCl. CONCLUSION: β‐CD/g‐C₃N₄ nanocomplex achieves an ultrahigh drug‐loading capacity and pH‐responsive release and visualization of the cell phagocytic process. The results indicate that the β‐CD/g‐C₃N₄ nanocomplex can be developed as a promising luminescence carrier for drug delivery. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry