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Across-population variation in sex ratio in invasive Japanese Potamopyrgus antipodarum (Caenogastropoda: Rissooidea: Hydrobiidae)

Tatara, Yuki, Hamada, Kana, Urabe, Misako
Limnology 2014 v.15 no.2 pp. 185-190
Potamopyrgus antipodarum, eggs, fecundity, females, flow cytometry, invasive species, juveniles, males, risk, sex ratio, sexual reproduction, spermatozoa, triploidy, Japan
Potamopyrgus antipodarum, a well-known invasive species, has both sexual and asexual forms in its native area, and is generally asexual in exotic areas. Potamopyrgus antipodarum was sampled from ten locations in central and western Japan, and the sex distribution was analyzed. Males were found in two of the ten localities; the percentages of males in these localities were 7.2 and 7.3 %, which is within the range of that observed in asexual populations in native and introduced areas. A flow cytometry analysis showed that populations with a low percentage of males (Kanro) and populations consisting only of females (Banyu Park, Hadano and Yugawara) and perhaps the population reported as having a high male percentage in a previous study (Chiba; 29.8 %) were triploid. Males from Chiba and Kanro produced sperm. Most of the females from Chiba stored sperm in their seminal receptacle, showing that they had copulated, but no females from Kanro stored sperm. Fertilization by males, normal development of fertilized eggs, and the fecundity of juveniles should be evaluated in further studies to demonstrate the sexual reproduction of P. antipodarum in Japan. The risk of introduction of sexual P. antipodarum individuals is further discussed in the article.