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Interaction between the three frequently co‐occurring Fusarium mycotoxins in rats

Szabó‐Fodor, Judit, Szabó, András, Kócsó, Dániel, Marosi, Kinga, Bóta, Brigitta, Kachlek, Mariam, Mézes, Miklós, Balogh, Krisztián, Kövér, György, Nagy, István, Glávits, Róbert, Kovács, Melinda
Journal of animal physiology and animal nutrition 2019 v.103 no.1 pp. 370-382
Fusarium, acute exposure, aspartate transaminase, body weight, enzyme activity, feed intake, genotoxicity, glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, histopathology, intraperitoneal injection, liver, lymphocytes, mortality, mycotoxins, rats, synergism
To test the complex, acute biochemical effects of combined, naturally co‐occurring fusariotoxins, a 5‐day rat study was performed. Mycotoxin treatment was invented by intraperitoneal injection: FB₁ (F): 9 µg/animal/day (approx. 30 µg/kg bw/day), DON (D): 16.5 µg/animal/day (approx. 55 µg/kg bw/day) and ZEN (Z): 12.75 µg/animal/day (approx. 42.5 µg/kg bw/day). The binary groups (FB₁ and DON [FD], FB₁ and ZEN [FZ] and DON and ZEN [DZ]) as well as the ternary (FB₁, DON and ZEN [FDZ]) group were dosed at the same combined level as the individual mycotoxins. Body weight, feed intake and mortality were not affected by any of the treatments. FB₁ and DON in combination (FD) increased the plasma aspartate aminotransferase activity synergistically (compared to the individual FB₁ and DON). In the liver, both the total glutathione (GSH) and the glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity were increased (p < 0.05) by the binary FB₁ and ZEN (FZ) and the DON and ZEN (DZ) groups as well as the ternary FB₁, DON and ZEA group (FDZ) compared to the control. The GSH level of the ternary group was significantly increased compared to the FB₁ group, whereas the GPx activity of the ternary group was significantly increased compared to all three the individual mycotoxin groups. The Bliss independence method revealed synergism between DON and ZEN (DZ), as well as FB₁ and DON (FD) on liver GPx activity. None of the toxins alone or in combination exerted strong genotoxicity on lymphocytes, neither on the gross histopathological characteristics. However, even at these low levels acute exposure of more than one of these mycotoxins (FB₁, DON and ZEN) affected metabolic and detoxification changes.