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Description and characterization of a hair coat disorder in schipperkes

May, Elizabeth R., Frank, Linda A., Sula, Mee‐Ja M.
Veterinary dermatology 2019 v.30 no.1 pp. 36
17-hydroxyprogesterone, alopecia, androstenedione, biopsy, blood, blood chemistry, cortisol, creatinine, dogs, estradiol, hairs, histopathology, signs and symptoms (animals and humans), thyrotropin, thyroxine, urinalysis, urine, veterinary medicine
BACKGROUND: Schipperkes develop bilaterally symmetrical alopecia preceded by lightening of the hair coat not associated with systemic clinical signs. The alopecia is presumptively diagnosed as Alopecia X but has never been investigated. HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to describe clinical features, histopathological and laboratory abnormalities associated with symmetrical, noninflammatory alopecia in schipperkes. ANIMALS: Three healthy and eight affected schipperkes. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Complete blood count (CBC), serum chemistry panel, urinalysis (UA), urine cortisol: creatinine ratio (UCCR), total thyroxine (T₄), free thyroxine by equilibrium dialysis (fT₄ed), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and pre‐ and post‐stimulation cortisol with sex hormone analyses were performed for all dogs. A minimum of two skin biopsy sites were sampled for histopathological evaluation. RESULTS: The CBC, serum chemistry panel, UA, T₄, fT₄ed, TSH and post‐ACTH cortisol concentrations were normal for all dogs. Androstenedione concentrations were increased for all dogs; two of three healthy and five of eight affected dogs had increased post‐ACTH androstenedione concentrations. Estradiol concentrations were increased for all healthy and four of eight affected dogs, with post‐ACTH estradiol concentrations increased for all healthy and five of eight affected dogs. Progesterone concentrations were increased for two of three healthy and four of eight affected dogs. Post‐ACTH progesterone concentrations were increased for one of three healthy and four of eight affected dogs. For one of three healthy and two of eight affected dogs, 17‐hydroxyprogesterone concentrations were increased; post‐ACTH 17‐hydroxyprogesterone concentrations were increased in three of eight affected dogs only. Histopathology results from affected dogs were consistent with hair cycle arrest. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL IMPORTANCE: This disorder resembles Alopecia X clinically and histologically.